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63. Ki Zi [After Completion]


Thwan, or Overall Judgment (Attributed to King Wan)

Ki Zi intimates progress and success in small matters. There will be advantage in being firm and correct. There has been good fortune in the beginning; there may be disorder in the end.

[Whincup] Already across the ford.
Small should remain as he is.
Beginning: auspicious.
Ending: disarray.

[Christensen] 63 - 既 濟 After the Crossing
既 濟 亨 小 利 貞 初 吉 終 亂 Having just crossed the river, although successfully, there is only little to gain now. Things must be corrected. In the beginning things are good; in the end there is disorder.

[Pearson] (jì jì) After the Crossing After the crossing. Success. In what is minor, persistence pays. In the beginning, good fortune. In the end, disorder.

[Redmond] 63. 既濟 Ji Ji Already Across the River
63.0 Make a small offering; beneficial to divine. Begins auspiciously, ends chaotically. 亨小; 利貞.初吉, 終亂.

[Legge] The character called Ki is used as a symbol of being past or completed. Zi denotes primarily crossing a stream, and has the secondary meaning of helping and completing. The two characters, combined, will express the successful accomplishment of whatever the writer has in his mind. In dealing with this lineal figure, king Wan was thinking of the condition of the kingdom, at length at rest and quiet. The vessel of the state has been brought safely across the great and dangerous stream. The distresses of the kingdom have been relieved, and its disorders have been repressed. Does anything remain to be done still? Yes, in small things. The new government has to be consolidated. Its ruler must, without noise or clamour, go on to perfect what has been wrought, with firmness and correctness, and ever keeping in mind the instability of all human affairs. That every line of the hexagram is in its correct place, and has its proper correlate is also supposed to harmonize with the intimation of progress and success.

Comments on the Thwan

1. 'Ki Zi intimates progress and success:'—in small matters, that is, there will be that progress and success.

2. 'There will be advantage in being firm and correct:'—the strong and weak (lines) are correctly arranged, each in its appropriate place.

3. 'There has been good fortune in the beginning:—the weak (second line) is in the centre.

4. 'In the end' there is a cessation (of effort), and 'disorder arises:'—the course (that led to rule and order) is (now) exhausted.

[Legge] For paragraphs 1 and 2, see the note on the Text of the Thwan.

It is difficult to see the concatenation in paragraph 3 between the sentiment of the Thwan and the nature of the second line. The Khang-hsi editors compare this hexagram and the next with 11 and 12, observing that the goodness of Thai (11) is concentrated, as here, in the second line.

The sentiment of paragraph 4 is that which we have often met with,—that things move on with a constant process of change. Disorder succeeds to order, and again order to disorder.

Great Symbolism

(The trigram representing) fire and that for water above it form Ki Zi. The superior man, in accordance with this, thinks of evil (that may come), and beforehand guards against it.

[Legge] Water and fire coming together as here, fire under the water, each element occupies its proper place, and their interaction will be beneficial. Such is the common explanation of the Great Symbolism; but the connexion between it and the application of it, which also is good in itself, is by no means clear.

Line Statements (Attributed to the Duke of Kau)

1. The first NINE, undivided, (shows its subject as a driver) who drags back his wheel, (or as a fox) which has wet his tail. There will be no error.

101010 changing to 001010

Matching Line in Adjacent Hexagram: 64.1

The wheels of his carriage drag in the mud.
The little fox gets his tail wet.
No harm.

[Christensen] 初 九﹕ 曳 其 輪 濡 其 尾 无 咎 Beginning 9: [If the carriage is stuck while crossing the ford] it is no mistake to [get out and] drag the wheels [even though it involves] getting the behind wet.

[Pearson] Nine in the first place: Dragging your ribbon, wetting your tail. No blame.

[Redmond] 63.1 Trailing a ribbon. Dips its tail. There will be no blame. 初九曳其輪. 濡其尾. 无咎.

[Smaller Symbolism] 1. 'He drags back his wheel:'—as we may rightly judge, there will be no mistake.

[Legge] Line 1, the first of the hexagram, represents the time immediately after the successful achievement of the enterprise it denotes;—the time for resting and being quiet. For a season, at least, all movement should be hushed. Hence we have the symbolism of a driver trying to stop his carriage, and a fox who has wet his tail, and will not tempt the stream again.

2. The second SIX, divided, (shows its subject as) a wife who has lost her (carriage-)screen. There is no occasion to go in pursuit of it. In seven days she will find it.

101010 changing to 111010

Matching Line in Adjacent Hexagram: 64.2

A wife loses her carriage curtain.
She must not chase after it.
In seven days she will get it back.

[Christensen] 六 二﹕ 婦 喪 其 茀 勿 逐 七 日 得 Second 6: The woman loses her carriage curtain but she should not look for it, she will get [another] after a few days.

[Pearson] Six in the second place: The woman loses her hair ornament. Do not pursue it, for in seven days you will obtain one.

[Redmond] 63.2 The wife loses her hair ornament. Do not look for it—in seven days will be found. 六二婦喪其勿逐—七日得.

[Smaller Symbolism] 2. 'In seven days she will find it:'—for the course pursued is that indicated by the central position (of the line).

[Legge] Line 2 is weak, and in its proper place. It also has the strong correlate 5; and might be expected to be forward to act. But it occupies its correct and central place, and suggests the symbol of a lady whose carriage has lost its screen. She will not advance further so soon after success has been achieved; but keep herself hidden and retired. Let her not try to find the screen. When it is said that she will find this 'after seven days,' the meaning seems to be simply this, that the period of Ki Zi will then have been exhausted, the six lines having been gone through, and a new period, when action will be proper, shall have commenced.

3. The third NINE, undivided, (suggests the case of) Kao Zung, who attacked the Demon region, but was three years in subduing it. Small men should not be employed (in such enterprises).

101010 changing to 100010

Matching Line in Adjacent Hexagram: 64.3

When High Ancestor attacked the Land of Gui,
It took him three years to conquer it.
A little man must not take action.

[Christensen] 九 三﹕ 高 宗 伐 鬼 方 三 年 克 之 小 人 勿 用 Third 9: King Wu Ding attacked the devil’s land and could do it in three years; [for such a task] less capable men cannot be used.

[Pearson] Nine in the third place: The lofty Ancestors attacked the demon country, and conquered it in three years. Do not deal with petty people.

[Redmond] 63.3 The high ancestor (King Wu Ding) defeated Guizong, the demon land, in the course of three years. Petty people are not to be utilized. 九三高宗伐鬼方, 三年克之. 小人勿用.

[Smaller Symbolism] 3. 'He was three years in subduing it:'—enough to make him weary.

[Legge] The strong line 3, at the top of the lower trigram, suggests for its subject one undertaking a vigorous enterprise. The writer thinks of Kao Zung, the sacrificial title of Wu Ting, one of the ablest sovereigns of the Shang dynasty (B. C. 1364-1324), who undertook an expedition against the barbarous hordes of the cold and bleak regions north of the Middle States. He is mentioned again under the next hexagram. He appears also in the Shu, IV, ix, and in the Shih, IV, iii, ode 5. His enterprise may have been good, and successful, but it was tedious, and the paragraph concludes with a caution.

4. The fourth SIX, divided, shows its subject with rags provided against any leak (in his boat), and on his guard all day long.

101010 changing to 101110

Matching Line in Adjacent Hexagram: 64.4

His padded jacket gets wet.
He remains apprehensive all day.

[Christensen] 六 四﹕ 繻 有 衣 袽 終 日 戒 Fourth 6: Your fine coloured silk cloth has been worn [for so long it is nearly] worn-out. Towards the end of its days you must be careful [not to rip it].

[Pearson] Six in the fourth place: The jacket is padded with silk wad-ding. All day, take warning.

[Redmond] 63.4 Multicolored silk padded jacket to be prepared for winter days. 六四繻有衣袽冬日戒.

[Smaller Symbolism] 4. 'He is on his guard all the day:'—he is in doubt about something.

[Legge] Line 4 is weak, and has advanced into the trigram. for water. Its subject will be cautious, and prepare for evil, as in the symbolism, suggested probably by the nature of the trigram.

5. The fifth NINE, undivided, shows its subject (as) the neighbour in the east who slaughters an ox (for his sacrifice); but this is not equal to the (small) spring sacrifice of the neighbour in the west, whose sincerity receives the blessing.

101010 changing to 101000

Matching Line in Adjacent Hexagram: 64.5

[Whincup]The Eastern Neighbor slaughters an ox,
But this does not bring as full a blessing
As the Western Neighbor's modest offering.

[Christensen] 九 五﹕ 東 鄰 殺 牛 不 如 西 鄰 之 禴 祭 實 受 其 福 Fifth 9: The neighbour to the East killed an ox; this was not as substantial as the summer sacrifice of the neighbour to the West but [the neighbour to the East still] received the blessing.

[Pearson] Nine in the fifth place: Though your neighbor to the east slaughters an ox for his sacrifice, it is not as effective as the offering of wild herbage by your neighbor to the west, which really provides prosperity. Good fortune.

[Redmond] 63.5 Eastern neighbors slaughter oxen. Not like western neighbor’s Yue (summer) ancestral sacrifice, that truly obtains good fortune. 九五東鄰殺牛. 不如西鄰之禴祭, 實受其福.

[Smaller Symbolism] 5. 'The slaughtering of an ox by the neighbour in the east is not equal to (the small sacrifice of) the neighbour in the west:'—because the time (in the latter case is more important and fit). 'His sincerity receives the blessing:'—good fortune comes on a great scale.

[Legge] 'The neighbour in the East' is the subject of line 5, and 'the neighbour in the West' is the subject of the correlate 2, the former quarter being yang and the latter yin. Line 5 is strong, and 2 is weak; but weakness is more likely to be patient and cautious than strength. They are compared to two men sacrificing. The one presents valuable offerings; the other very poor ones. But the second excels in sincerity, and his small offering is the more acceptable.

6. The topmost SIX, divided, shows its subject with (even) his head immersed. The position is perilous.

101010 changing to 101011

Matching Line in Adjacent Hexagram: 64.6

He gets his head wet.

[Christensen] 上 六﹕ 濡 其 首 厲 Top 6: It is dangerous if the water [is too deep] and rises over the head.

[Pearson] Six at the top: Wetting your head: danger.

[Redmond] 63.6 Wetting one’s head, danger. 上六濡其首, 厲.

[Smaller Symbolism] 6. 'His head is immersed; the position is perilous:'—how could such a state continue long?

[Legge] The topmost line is weak, and on the outmost edge of Khan, the trigram, of peril. His action is violent and perilous, like that one attempting to cross a ford, and being plunged overhead into the water.

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