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36. Ming I [Intelligence Wounded]


Thwan, or Overall Judgment (Attributed to King Wan)

Ming I indicates that (in the circumstances which it denotes) it will be advantageous to realise the difficulty (of the position), and maintain firm correctness.

[Whincup] The bright pheasant.
Despite adversity,
   it is favorable to persevere.

[Christensen] 36 - 明 夷 Enlighten the Unenlightened  
明 夷 利 艱 貞 To enlighten the unenlightened is beneficial. It may be difficult, but it is the correct thing to do.

[Pearson] (míng yí) Wounded Light
The light is wounded. In difficulties, it is effective to persevere.

[Redmond] 36. 明夷 Ming Yi Calling Pheasant
36.0 Divination beneficial if in difficulty. 利艱貞.

[Legge] In this hexagram we have the representation of a good and intelligent minister or officer going forward in the service of his country, notwithstanding the occupancy of the throne by a weak and unsympathising sovereign. Hence comes its name of Ming I, or 'Intelligence Wounded,' that is, injured and repressed. The treatment of the subject shows how such an officer will conduct himself, and maintain his purpose. The symbolism of the figure is treated of in the same way in the ['Comments on the Thwan' and 'Great Symbolism,' below]. [Appendix 6, 32-37] merely says that the advance set forth in 35 is sure to meet with wounding, and hence Zin is followed by Ming I.

Comments on the Thwan

1. (The symbol of) the Earth and that of Brightness entering into the midst of it give the idea of Ming I (Brightness wounded or obscured).

2. The inner (trigram) denotes being accomplished and bright; the outer, being pliant and submissive. The case of king Wan was that of one who with these qualities was yet involved in great difficulties.

3. 'It will be advantageous to realise the difficulty (of the position), and maintain firm correctness:—that is, (the individual concerned) should obscure his brightness. The case of the count of Ki was that of one who, amidst the difficulties of his House, was able (thus) to maintain his aim and mind correct.

[Legge] The sun disappearing, as we say, 'below the earth,' or, as the Chinese writer conceives it, 'into the midst of, or within the earth,' sufficiently indicates the obscuration or wounding of brightness,—the repression and resistance of the good and bright.

King Wan was not of the line of Shang. Though opposed and persecuted by its sovereign, he could pursue his own course, till his line came in the end to supersede the other. It could not be so with the count of Ki, who was a member of the House of Shang. He could do nothing that would help on its downfall.

Great Symbolism

(The trigram representing) the earth and that for the bright (sun) entering within it form Ming I. The superior man, in accordance with this, conducts his management of men;—he shows his intelligence by keeping it obscured.

[Legge] The application of the Great Symbolism here is in itself sufficiently natural; but this meaning of the hexagram hardly appears in the text, till we come to the sixth line.

Line Statements (Attributed to the Duke of Kau)

1. The first NINE, undivided, shows its subject, (in the condition indicated by) Ming I, flying, but with drooping wings. When the superior man (is revolving) his going away, he may be for three days without eating. Wherever he goes, the people there may speak (derisively of him).

101000 changing to 001000

Matching Line in Adjacent Hexagram: 35.1

The bright pheasant takes flight,
   beating his wings.
A lord goes on a journey,
   for three days he does not eat.
He goes to have words with his ruler.

[Pearson] Nine in the first place: Light wounded in flight. You fold your wings. When those worthy of power travel, for three days they do not eat. You have a destination, and a host with words.

[Christensen] 初 九﹕ 明 夷 于 飛 垂 其 翼 君 子 于 行 三 日 不 食 有 攸 往 主 人 有 言 Beginning 9: [While on a campaign] to enlighten barbarians, [although progressing like if you were] flying [you should] lower your wings [and come down]. While the wise person is walking for three days he doesn’t eat because he has a set goal. However, his landlady has something to say [about not eating her food].

[Redmond] 36.1 Calling pheasant in flight, swooping down on its wings. The upright person walks for three days without eating. Has someplace to go—his master has spoken. 初九明夷于飛, 垂其翼. 君子于行三日不食. 有攸往—主人有言.

[Smaller Symbolism] 1. 'The superior man (is revolving his) going away:'—(in such a case) he feels it right not to eat.

[Legge] Line 1 is strong, and in its right place;—its subject should be going forward. But the general signification of the hexagram supposes him to be wounded. The wound, however, being received at the very commencement of its action, is but slight. And hence conies the emblem of a bird hurt so as to be obliged to droop its wings. The subject then appears directly as 'the superior man.' He sees it to be his course to desist from the struggle for a time, and is so rapt in the thought that he can fast for three days and not think of it. When he does withdraw, opposition follows him; but it is implied that he holds on to his own good purpose. [Legge: Smaller Symbolism] Paragraph 1. 'He thinks it right not to eat;'—he does not purposely fast; but when he has nothing to eat, he does not complain. He thinks it right that it should be so in the case.

2. The second SIX, divided, shows its subject, (in the condition indicated by) Ming I, wounded in the left thigh. He saves himself by the strength of a (swift) horse; and is fortunate.

101000 changing to 111000

Matching Line in Adjacent Hexagram: 35.2

The bright pheasant is wounded in the left thigh.
If his horse is strong, he will be rescued
   and will have good fortune.

[Christensen] 六 二﹕ 明 夷 夷 于 左 股 用 拯 馬 壯 吉 Second 6: To enlighten the unenlightened one after another, you must find the strength of a cart-horse inside your left thigh to make things right.

[Pearson] Six in the second place: The light is wounded in the left thigh. You use the strength of a horse to hold yourself aloft. For the great, good fortune.

[Redmond] 36.2 Calling pheasant. Wounded in the left thigh. Use to geld a robust horse, auspicious. 六二明夷. 夷于左股. 用拯馬壯, 吉.

[Smaller Symbolism] 2. 'The good fortune of (the subject of) the second SIX, divided,' is due to the proper fashion of his acting according to his circumstances.

[Legge] Line 2 is weak, but also in its right place, and central; giving us the idea of an officer, obedient to duty and the right. His wound in the left thigh may impede his movements, but does not disable him. He finds means to save himself, and maintains his good purpose. [Legge: Smaller Symbolism] Paragraph 2. 'The proper fashion of acting' is suggested by the weak line's being in the central place.

3. The third NINE, undivided, shows its subject, (in the condition indicated by) Ming I, hunting in the south, and taking the great chief (of the darkness). He should not be eager to make (all) correct (at once).

101000 changing to 100000

Matching Line in Adjacent Hexagram: 35.3

A bright pheasant goes hunting in the south
And finds a great chief.
He must not continue to accept affliction.

[Christensen] 九 三﹕ 明 夷 于 南 狩 得 其 大 首 不 可 疾 貞 Third 9: Enlightening barbarians on a campaign in the South and capturing their leader. You can’t rush correcting [them].

[Pearson] Nine in the third place: The light is wounded in the southern hunt. She gains her great leader but cannot be hasty in [promising] constancy.

[Redmond] 36.3 Calling pheasant during the king’s southern winter hunt. Gain their great leader. Cannot divine about illness. 九三明夷于南狩. 得其大首. 不可疾貞。

[Smaller Symbolism] 3. With the aim represented by 'hunting in the south' a great achievement is accomplished.

[Legge] Line 3, strong and in a strong place, is the topmost line of the lower. trigram. It responds also to line 6, in which the idea of the sovereign, emblemed by the upper trigram, is concentrated. The lower trigram is the emblem of light or brightness, the idea of which again is expressed by the south, to which we turn when we look at the sun in its meridian height. Hence the subject of the line becomes a hunter pursuing his game, and successfully. The good officer will be successful in his struggle; but let him not be over eager to put all things right at once. [Legge: Smaller Symbolism] Paragraph 3. 'The great achievement is accomplished;' but such achievement was not what prompted to action.

4. The fourth SIX, divided, shows its subject (just) entered into the left side of the belly (of the dark land). (But) he is able to carry out the mind appropriate (in the condition indicated by) Ming I, quitting the gate and courtyard (of the lord of darkness).

101000 changing to 101100

Matching Line in Adjacent Hexagram: 35.4

Entering the left side of his belly,
He grasps the bright pheasant's heart,
Just as he is going out the gate.

[Christensen] 六 四﹕ 入 于 左 腹 獲 明 夷 之 心 于 出 門 庭 Fourth 6: Go into the left side of the belly, get the core of what should be enlightened and [bring it] out into [the light of] the courtyard.

[Pearson] Six in the fourth place: The light is wounded in the left of her belly. Spearing the heart of the wounded light, going out of the gates of one’s courtyard.

[Redmond] 36.4 Enters into the left flank, snaring the calling pheasant’s heart. Through the gate into the courtyard. 六四入于左腹, 獲明夷之心.于出門庭.

[Smaller Symbolism] 4. 'He has (just) entered into the left side of the belly (of the dark land):'—he is still able to carry out the idea in his (inner) mind.

[Legge] Line 4 is weak, but in its right place. Ku Hsi says he does not understand the symbolism, as given in the Text. The translation indicates the view of it commonly accepted. The subject of the line evidently escapes from his position of danger with little damage. [Legge: Smaller Symbolism] Paragraph 4. 'The idea in his inner mind' is the idea of withdrawing from the position and escaping; but the meaning is obscure.

5. The fifth SIX, divided, shows how the count of Ki fulfilled the condition indicated by Ming I. It will be advantageous to be firm and correct.

101000 changing to 101010

Matching Line in Adjacent Hexagram: 35.5

A bright pheasant like Prince Ji.
It is favorable to continue.

[Christensen] 六 五﹕ 箕 子 之 明 夷 利 貞 Fifth 6: Ji Zi enlightened the unenlightened. It will be beneficial to correct things [like he did].

[Pearson] Six in the fifth place: Like the wounded brilliance of the Prince of Ji. Persistence is effective.

[Redmond] 36.5 Jizi’s calling pheasant—a beneficial divination. 六五箕子之明夷—利貞.

[Smaller Symbolism] 5. 'With the firm correctness of the count of Ki,' his brightness could not be (quite) extinguished.

[Legge] Line 5 should be the place of the ruler or sovereign in the hexagram; but 6 is assigned as that place in Ming I. The officer occupying 5, the centre of the upper trigram, and near to the sovereign, has his ideal in the count of Ki, whose action appears in the Shu, 3, pp. 123, 127, 128. He is a historical personage.

6. The sixth SIX, divided, shows the case where there is no light, but (only) obscurity. (Its subject) had at first ascended to (the top of) the sky; his future shall be to go into the earth.

101000 changing to 101001

Matching Line in Adjacent Hexagram: 35.6

Not bright but dark.
First he flies up to Heaven,
Then he descends into the earth.

[Christensen] 上 六﹕ 不 明 晦 初 登 于 天 後 入 于 地 Top 6: Not light but darkness. First he ascended up in Heaven later plunged down into Earth.

[Pearson] Six at the top: Not light but darkness [literally, as little light as the last night of the old moon]. First [light] rises into the sky, afterwards it enters the earth.

[Redmond] 36.6 Not bright, but dim. First rises toward the heavens, afterwards to the earth. 上六不明晦. 初登于天, 後入于地.

[Smaller Symbolism] 6. 'He had at first ascended to (the top of) the sky:'—he might have enlightened the four quarters of the kingdom. 'His future shall be to go into the earth:'—he has failed to fulfil the model (of a ruler).

[Legge] Line 6 sets forth the fate of the ruler, who opposes himself to the officer who would do him good and intelligent service. Instead of becoming as the sun, enlightening all from the height of the sky, he is as the sun hidden below the earth. I can well believe that the writer had the last king of Shang in his mind.

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