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52. Kan [Mountain, Resting]

001001

Thwan, or Overall Judgment (Attributed to King Wan)

When one's resting is like that of the back, and he loses all consciousness of self; when he walks in his courtyard, and does not see any (of the persons) in it,—there will be no error.

[Legge] The trigram Kan represents a mountain. Mountains rise up grandly from the surface of the earth, and their masses rest on it in quiet and solemn majesty; and they serve also to arrest the onward progress of the traveller. Hence the attribute ascribed to Kan is twofold; it is both active and passive-resting and arresting. The character is used in this hexagram with both of those significations. As the name of the figure, it denotes the mental characteristic of resting in what is right; especially resting, as it is expressed by Chinese critics, 'in principle,'—that which is light, on the widest scale, and in the absolute conception of the mind; and that which is right in every different position in which a man can be placed. We find this treated of in the Great Learning (Commentary, chapter 3), and in the Doctrine of the Mean, chapter 14, and other places. This is the theme of the hexagram; and the symbolism of it is all taken from different parts of the human body, as in hexagram 31, and the way in which they are dealt with. Several of the paragraphs are certainly not easy to translate and interpret.

The other parts of the body, such as the mouth, eyes, and ears, have their appetencies, which lead them to what is without themselves. The back alone has nothing to do with anything beyond itself-hardly with itself even; all that it has to do is to stand straight and strong. So should it be with, us, resting in principle, free from the intrusion of selfish though s and external objects. Amidst society, he who realises the idea of the hexagram is still alone, and does not allow himself to be distracted from the contemplation and following of principle. He is not a recluse, however, who keeps aloof from social life; but his distinction is that he maintains a supreme regard to principle, when alone, and when mingling with others.

Comments on the Thwan

1. Kan denotes stopping or resting;—resting when it is the time to rest, and acting when it is the time to act. When one's movements and restings all take place at the proper time for them, his way (of proceeding) is brilliant and intelligent.

2. Resting in one's resting-point is resting in one's proper place. The upper and lower (lines of the hexagram) exactly correspond to each other, but are without any interaction; hence it is said that '(the subject of the hexagram) has no consciousness of self; that when he walks in his courtyard, he does not see (any of) the persons in it; and that there will be no error.'

[Legge] 1. The Khang-hsi editors give their opinion that what is said in the first sentence of this paragraph, after the explanation of the name, illustrates the first sentence of the Thwan, and that the other sentence illustrates the: rest of the Thwan. It may be so, but the whole of the Thwan appears in paragraph 2.

2. The hexagram being made up of Kan repeated, lines 1, 2, 3 are of course the same as 4, 5, and 6. But it will be seen that there is not a proper correlation among them all. I do not see, however, that this furnishes any ground for the entire obliviousness of self, which the Thwan makes out to be in the figure.

Great Symbolism

(Two trigrams representing) a mountain, one over the other, form Kan. The superior man, in accordance with this, does not go in his thoughts beyond the (duties of the) position in which he is.

[Legge] According to the view of the Khang-hsi editors, the application should be translated:—'The superior man, in accordance with this, thinks anxiously how he shall not go beyond the duties of his position.' It is difficult to decide between this shade of the meaning, and the more common one which I have followed.

Line Statements (Attributed to the Duke of Kau)

1. The first SIX, divided, shows its subject keeping his toes at rest. There will be no error; but it will be advantageous for him to be persistently firm and correct.

[Smaller Symbolism] 1. 'He keeps his toes at rest:'—he does not fail in what is correct (according to the idea of the figure).

[Legge] In the symbolism the author rises from one part of the body to the other. The first line at the bottom of the figure fitly suggests 'the toes.' The lesson is that from the first men should rest in, and be anxious to do, what is right in all their affairs. The weakness of the line and its being in an odd place give occasion for the caution, with which the paragraph concludes. [Legge: Smaller Symbolism] The toes play a great part in walking; but they are here kept at rest, and so do not lose the correct idea of Kan.

2. The second SIX, divided, shows its subject keeping the calves of his legs at rest. He cannot help (the subject of the line above) whom he follows, and is dissatisfied in his mind.

[Smaller Symbolism] 2. 'He cannot help him whom he follows:'(he whom he follows) will not retreat to listen to him.

[Legge] Above the toes are the calves, represented by the second line, weak, but in its proper place. Above this, again, are the loins, represented by 3, strong, and in danger of being violent. Line 2 follows 3, and should help it; but is unable to do so; and there results dissatisfaction. [Legge: Smaller Symbolism] There is no correlation between lines 2 and 3, and thence the subject of 3 will hold on its upward way without condescending to 2.

3. The third NINE, undivided, shows its subject keeping his loins at rest, and separating the ribs (from the body below). The situation is perilous, and the heart glows with suppressed excitement.

[Smaller Symbolism] 3. 'He keeps the loins at rest:'—the danger (from his doing so) produces a glowing, heat in the heart.

[Legge] When the calves are kept at rest, advance is stopped, but no other harm ensues. Not so when the loins are kept at rest, and unable to bend, for the connexion between the upper and lower parts of the body is then broken. The dissatisfaction increases to an angry heat. Paragraph 3 is unusually difficult. For 'loins' P. Regis has scapulae, and for ribs renes; Canon McClatchie says:—'Third Nine is stopping at a limit, and separating what is in continued succession (i.e. the backbone); thus the mind,' &c.

4. The fourth SIX, divided, shows its subject keeping his trunk at rest. There will be no error.

[Smaller Symbolism] 4. 'He keeps the trunk of his body at rest:'—he keeps himself free (from agitation).

[Legge] Line 4 is a weak line resting in a proper place; hence it gives a good auspice. The Khang-hsi editors, however, call attention to the resting of the trunk as being inferior to the resting of the back in the Thwan. [Legge: Smaller Symbolism] Khang-zze finds an unsatisfactory auspice in paragraph 4. Line 4 represents a great minister who should be able to guide all to rest where they ought to be; but he can only keep himself from agitation.

5. The fifth SIX, divided, shows its subject keeping his jawbones at rest, so that his words are (all) orderly. Occasion for repentance will disappear.

[Smaller Symbolism] 5. 'He keeps his cheek bones at rest:'—in harmony with his central position he acts correctly.

[Legge] The place of the weak fifth line is not proper for it; and this accounts for the mention of its subject 'repenting,' for which, however, there is not occasion. [Legge: Smaller Symbolism] Yu Pan (Ming dynasty) says on paragraph 5:—'Words should not be uttered rashly. Then, when uttered, they will be found accordant with principle. But it is only the master of the virtue belonging to the due mean who can attain to this.'

6. The sixth NINE, undivided, shows its subject devotedly maintaining his restfulness. There will be good fortune.

[Smaller Symbolism] 6. 'There is good fortune through his devotedly maintaining his restfulness:'—to the end he shows himself generous and good.

[Legge] The third line of the trigrams, and the sixth of the hexagram, is what makes Kan what it is,—the symbol of a mountain. The subject of it therefore will carry out the resting required by the whole figure in the highest style.

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