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14. Ta Yu [Great Havings]


Thwan, or Overall Judgment (Attributed to King Wan)

Ta Yu indicates that, (under the circumstances which it implies), there will be great progress and success.

[Legge] Ta Yu means 'Great Havings;' denoting in a kingdom a state of prosperity and abundance, and in a, family or individual, a state of opulence. The danger threatening such a condition arises from the pride which it is likely to engender. But everything here is against that issue. Apart from the symbolism of the trigrams, we have the place of honour occupied by a weak line, so that its subject will be humble; and all the other lines, strong as they are, will act in obedient sympathy. There will be great progress and success.

Comments on the Thwan

1. In Ta Yu the weak (line) has the place of honour, is grandly central, and (the strong lines) above and below respond to it. Hence comes its name of Ta Yu (Having what is Great).

2. The attributes (of its component trigrams) are strength and vigour with elegance and brightness. (The ruling line in it) responds to (the ruling line in the symbol of) heaven, and (consequently) its action is (all) at the proper times. In this way (it is said to) indicate great progress and success.

[Legge] The position in the fifth place indicates the dignity, and its being central, in the centre of the upper trigram, indicates the virtue, of the lord of the figure.

The strength of the lord, moreover, is directed by intelligence and his actions are always at the proper time, like the seasons of heaven.

Great Symbolism

(The trigram for) heaven and (that of) fire above it form Ta Yu The superior man, in accordance with this, represses what is evil and gives distinction to what is good, in sympathy with the excellent Heaven-conferred (nature).

[Legge: Smaller Symbolism] 'Fire above the sky' will shine far; and this is supposed to symbolise the vastness of the territory or of the wealth implied in the possession of what is great. The superior man, in governing men, especially in a time of prosperity and wealth, must set himself to develope what is good in them, and repress what is evil. And this will be in accordance with the will of Heaven, which has given to all men a nature fitted for goodness.

Line Statements (Attributed to the Duke of Kau)

1. In the first NINE, undivided, there is no approach to what is injurious, and there is no error. Let there be a realisation of the difficulty (and danger of the position), and there will be no error (to the end).

[Smaller Symbolism] This first NINE, (undivided),of Ta Yu shows no approach to what is injurious.

[Legge] Line 1, though strong, is at the lowest part of the figure, and has no correlate above. No external influences have as yet acted injuriously on its subject. Let him do as directed, and no hurtful influence will ever affect him.

2. In the second NINE, undivided, we have a large waggon with its load. In whatever direction advance is made, there will be no error.

[Smaller Symbolism] 'A large waggon with its load' refers to the (virtue) accumulated (in the subject of the line), so that he will suffer no loss (in the conduct of affairs).

[Legge] The strong line 2 has its proper correlate in line 5, the ruler of the figure, and will use its strength in subordination to his humility. Hence the symbolism.

3. The third NINE, undivided, shows us a feudal prince presenting his offerings to the Son of Heaven. A small man would be unequal (to such a duty).

[Smaller Symbolism] 'A feudal prince presents his offerings to the son of Heaven:'—a small man (in such a position) does (himself) harm.

[Legge] Line 3 is strong, and in the right (an odd) place. The topmost line of the lower trigram is the proper place for a feudal lord. The subject of this will humbly serve the condescending ruler in line 5. A small man, having the place without the virtue, would give himself airs.

4. The fourth NINE, undivided, shows its subject keeping his great resources under restraint. There will be no error.

[Smaller Symbolism] 'He keeps his great resources under restraint:'—his wisdom discriminates clearly (what he ought to do).

[Legge] Line 4 is strong, but the strength is tempered by the position, which is that of a weak line. Hence he will do no injury to the mild ruler, to whom he is so near.

5. The fifth SIX, divided, shows the sincerity of its subject reciprocated by that of all the others (represented in the hexagram). Let him display a proper majesty, and there will be good fortune.

[Smaller Symbolism] 'His sincerity is reciprocated by all the others:'—his sincerity serves to stir and call out what is in their minds. 'The good fortune springing from a display of proper majesty' shows how they might (otherwise) feel too easy, and make no preparation (to serve him).

[Legge] Line 5 symbolises the ruler. Mild sincerity is good in him, and affects his ministers and others. But a ruler must not be without an awe-inspiring majesty.

6. The topmost NINE, undivided, shows its subject with help accorded to him from Heaven. There will be good fortune, advantage in every respect.

[Smaller Symbolism] 'The good fortune attached to the topmost line of Ta Yu' arises from the help of Heaven.

[Legge] Even the topmost line takes its character from 5. The strength of its subject is still tempered, and Heaven gives its approval.

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Editorial features of this edition © 2012 by Joseph F. Morales