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32. Hang [Continuing]


Thwan, or Overall Judgment (Attributed to King Wan)

Hang indicates successful progress and no error (in what it denotes). But the advantage will come from being firm and correct; and movement in any direction whatever will be advantageous.

[Whincup] Constancy
Constancy is blessed.
Averts harm.
It is favorable to remain as one is.
It is favorable to go forward.

[Christensen] 32 - 恆 Duration  
恆 亨 无 咎 利 貞 利 有 攸 往 Enduring [effort] will ensure a perfect success. It will be fruitful to correct things and to have a goal to go towards.

[Pearson] (héng) Duration
Success without blame. Persistence is effective. It is appropriate to have a place to go.

[Redmond] 32. 恆 Heng Enduring
32.0 Nothing blameworthy. Beneficial to make offering. Beneficial to go somewhere. 无咎. 利貞. 利有攸往.

[Legge] The subject of this hexagram may be given as perseverance in well doing, or in continuously acting out the law of one's being. [Appendix 6, 31-32] makes it a sequel of the previous figure. As that treats, it is said, of the relation between husband and wife, so this treats of the continuous observance of their respective duties. Hsien, we saw, is made up of Kan, the symbol of the youngest son, and Tui, the symbol of the youngest daughter, attraction and influence between the sexes being strongest in youth. Hang consists of Sun, 'the oldest daughter,' and Kan, the oldest son. The couple are more staid. The wife occupies the lower place; and the relation between them is marked by her submission. This is sound doctrine, especially from a Chinese point of view; but I doubt whether such application of his teaching was in the mind of king Wan. Given two parties, an inferior and superior in correlation. If both be continuously observant of what is correct, the inferior being also submissive, and the superior firm, good fortune and progress may be predicated of their course.

Comments on the Thwan

1. Hang denotes long continuance. The strong (trigram) is above, and the weak one below; (they are the symbols of) thunder and wind, which are in mutual communication; (they have the qualities of) docility and motive force; their strong and weak (lines) all respond, each to the other:—these things are all found in Hang.

2. (When it is said that) 'Hang indicates successful progress and no error (in what it denotes); but the advantage will come from being firm and correct,' this indicates that there must be long continuance in its way of operation. The way of heaven and earth is to be long continued in their operation without stopping.

3. (When it is said that) 'Movement in any direction whatever will be advantageous,' this implies that when (the moving power) is spent, it will begin again.

4. The sun and moon, realising in themselves (the course of Heaven), can perpetuate their shining. The four seasons, by their changing and transforming, can perpetuate their production (of things). The sages persevere long in their course, and all under the sky are transformed and perfect. When we look at what they continue doing long, the natural tendencies of heaven, earth, and all things can be seen.

[Legge] All the conditions in paragraph 1 must be understood as leading to the indication of progress and success, which is explained in paragraph 2, and illustrated by the analogy of the course of heaven and earth.

'Movement in any direction,' as explained in paragraph 3, indicates the ever-occurring new modes and spheres of activity, to which he who is firm and correct is called.

Paragraph 4, and especially its concluding sentence, are of a meditative and reflective character not uncommon in the treatise on the Thwan.

Great Symbolism

(The trigram representing) thunder and that for wind form Hang. The superior man, in accordance with this, stands firm, and does not change his method (of operation).

[Legge] How the interaction of wind and thunder symbolises the lesson of the hexagram, and especially the application in this paragraph of that symbolism, is a question I have not been able to solve.

Line Statements (Attributed to the Duke of Kau)

1. The first SIX, divided, shows its subject deeply (desirous) of long continuance. Even with firm correctness there will be evil; there will be no advantage in any way.

011100 changing to 111100

Matching Line in Adjacent Hexagram: 31.1

Constant in the depths.
Not favorable.

[Christensen] 初 六﹕ 浚 恆 貞 凶 无 攸 利 Beginning 6: To keep digging a hole [may seem] correct but is [actually] bad if there is nothing of benefit in it.

[Pearson] Six in the first place: Deepening duration. Persistence brings misfortune. Nothing done now would be effective.

[Redmond] The Line Texts: 32.1 Deepening, enduring, ominous divination. There is nothing beneficial. 初六浚恆, 貞凶. 无攸利.

[Smaller Symbolism] 1. 'The evil attached to the deep desire for long continuance (in the subject of the first line)' arises from the deep seeking for it at the commencement (of things).

[Legge] Line 1 has a proper correlate in 4; but between them are two strong lines; and it is itself weak. These two conditions are against its subject receiving much help from the subject of 4. He should be quiet, and not forward for action. [Legge: Smaller Symbolism] Paragraph 1. The stress of what is said under line 1 is here made to lie on its being the first line of the figure.

2. The second NINE, undivided, shows all occasion for repentance disappearing.

011100 changing to 001100

Matching Line in Adjacent Hexagram: 31.2

Regrets will pass.

[Christensen] 九 二﹕ 悔 亡 Second 9: Let regret go.

[Pearson] Nine in the second place: Remorse disappears.

[Redmond] 32.2 Regret passes away. 九二悔亡.

[Smaller Symbolism] 2. 'All occasion for repentance on the part of the subject of the second NINE, (undivided,), disappears:'—he can abide long in the due mean.

[Legge] Line 2 is strong, but in the place of a weak line. Its position, however, being central, and its subject holding fast to the due mean, the unfavourable condition of an even place is more than counteracted. [Legge: Smaller Symbolism] Paragraph 2. Line 2 is in the centre of its trigram, and that position, here as often elsewhere, symbolises the course of its subject.

3. The third NINE, undivided, shows one who does not continuously maintain his virtue. There are those who will impute this to him as a disgrace. However firm he may be, there will be ground for regret.

011100 changing to 010100

Matching Line in Adjacent Hexagram: 31.3

He does not keep to his station.
He makes an offering of sauces.
Keeping on will bring trouble.

[Christensen] 九 三﹕ 不 恆 其 德 或 承 之 羞 貞 吝 Third 9: If your good conduct is not enduring someone will bring forward [what is] shameful. This is correct [of them] but will cause regret to you.

[Pearson] Nine in the third place: Without duration in your moral strength, you will suffer humiliation. Persistence brings troubles.

[Redmond] 32.3 Not endless, their obligation. Perhaps receiving shame. Divination: Stingy. 九三不恆, 其德. 或承之羞. 貞吝.

[Smaller Symbolism] 3. 'He does not continuously maintain his virtue:'—nowhere will he be borne with.

[Legge] Line 3 is strong, and in its proper place; but being beyond the centre of the trigram, its subject is too strong, and coming under the attraction of his correlate in 6, he is supposed to be ready to abandon his place and virtue. He may try to be firm and correct, but circumstances are adverse to him. [Legge: Smaller Symbolism] Paragraph 3. The Khang-hsi editors make the application here = 'nowhere can he bear (to remain).'

4. The fourth NINE, undivided, shows a field where there is no game.

011100 changing to 011000

Matching Line in Adjacent Hexagram: 31.4

He hunts and gets nothing.

[Christensen] 九 四﹕ 田 无 禽 Fourth 9: No birds in the field.

[Pearson] Nine in the fourth place: In the fields, neither birds nor beasts.

[Redmond] 32.4 The fields are without game to hunt. 九四田无禽.

[Smaller Symbolism] 4. (Going) for long to what is not his proper place, how can he get game?

[Legge] Line 4 is strong in the place of a weak line, and suggests the symbolism of the duke of Kau.

5. The fifth SIX, divided, shows its subject continuously maintaining the virtue indicated by it. In a wife this will be fortunate; in a husband, evil.

011100 changing to 011110

Matching Line in Adjacent Hexagram: 31.5

He keeps to his station.
Auspicious for a wife,
Inauspicious for a husband.

[Christensen] 六 五﹕ 恆 其 德 貞 婦 人 吉 夫 子 凶 Fifth 6: Enduring virtue and correctness of conduct is good for a married woman but bad for a man.

[Pearson] Six in the fifth place: Enduring in your moral strength. Persistence. For a wife, good fortune. For a husband, misfortune.

[Redmond] 32.5 Long-lasting is their effectiveness. Divination for a married woman is auspicious; for a husband, ominous. 六五恒其德. 貞婦人吉; 夫子, 凶.

[Smaller Symbolism] 5. 'Such firm correctness in a wife will be fortunate:'—it is hers to the end of life to follow with an unchanged mind. The husband must decide what is right, and lay down the rule accordingly:—for him to follow (like) a wife is evil.

[Legge] The weak 5th line responds to the strong 2nd, and may be supposed to represent a wife conscious of her weakness, and docilely submissive; which is good. A husband, however, and a man generally, has to assert himself, and lay down the rule of what is right. [Legge: Smaller Symbolism] From paragraph 5 it appears that what is right will vary in different cases. The lesson of the hexagram is perseverance in what is right in each particular case.

6. The topmost SIX, divided, shows its subject exciting himself to long continuance. There will be evil.

011100 changing to 011101

Matching Line in Adjacent Hexagram: 31.6

Under constant attack.

[Christensen] 上 六﹕ 振 恆 凶 Top 6: To be moving energetically for a long time is bad.

[Pearson] Six at the top: Shaking constancy; misfortune.

[Redmond] 32.6 Trembling that endures is ominous. 上六振恆凶.

[Smaller Symbolism] 6. 'The subject of the topmost line is exciting himself to long continuance:'—far will he be from achieving merit.

[Legge] In line 6 the principle of perseverance has run its course; the motive power of Kan is exhausted. The line itself is weak. The violent efforts of its subject can only lead to evil.

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